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Glossary

Abscess

An abscess is a localized collection of pus that forms within tissues, organs, or spaces in the body from infection, inflammation, or the body’s immune response to foreign substances. Abscesses can occur in various parts of the body and may vary in size from small and barely noticeable to large and painful. Skin abscesses may look red and swollen.

Acne

Acne, or acne vulgaris, is a common skin condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by the formation of pimples, blackheads, whiteheads, and sometimes deeper cysts or nodules on the skin, particularly on the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acute upper respiratory infection

Acute upper respiratory infection (URI), often referred to as the common cold, is a viral infection that primarily affects the upper respiratory tract. It is a prevalent and highly contagious condition that can occur year-round but is more common during colder months. Acute URIs are typically caused by various viruses, including rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses.

Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, commonly known as hay fever, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal passages caused by an allergic reaction to allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or mold spores. It is a common condition that affects people of all ages and can lead to a range of bothersome symptoms, including runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, throat, or ears, coughing, fatigue, or headaches.

Anxiety

Anxiety is a natural and adaptive human response to stress or perceived threats. It is often described as a feeling of unease, worry, or fear, typically accompanied by physical sensations like increased heart rate, muscle tension, and restlessness. While anxiety is a normal part of life and can be helpful in certain situations, it can become problematic when it becomes chronic, excessive, or overwhelming.

Asthma

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects the lungs. It is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which can lead to several symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder​

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, known as ADHD, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects people’s ability to focus, control impulses, and regulate their energy levels. It is a condition that can impact both children and adults, although symptoms often appear in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although ADHD can’t be cured, it can be successfully managed.

Balance Problems (Vestibular Disorders)​

Balance problems, often associated with vestibular disorders, can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life by disrupting their sense of equilibrium and spatial orientation. These disorders arise from issues within the vestibular system, a complex network of structures within the inner ear and brain that control balance and coordination.

Birthmarks

Birthmarks are common skin markings that are present at or shortly after birth. They come in various shapes, sizes, and colors and can appear anywhere on the body. While birthmarks are generally harmless and benign, occasionally, a birthmark may be a sign of other problems or diseases.

Blocked Tear Duct​

A blocked tear duct, medically known as nasolacrimal duct obstruction, is a common eye condition that occurs when the tear drainage system in the eye becomes partially or completely blocked. This condition can affect people of all ages and lead to several uncomfortable symptoms.

Bone Diseases

Bone diseases encompass a wide range of medical conditions that affect the skeletal system, which includes bones, joints, and connective tissues. These disorders can result from various causes and significantly impact a person’s mobility, overall health, and quality of life.

Broken Bones (Fractures)

Fractures are a prevalent form of injury that can occur at any age and affect people from all walks of life. They result from trauma, overuse, and diseases that weaken bones. Fractures can vary in severity and location, and their treatment depends on factors like the type and location of the fracture and the individual’s overall health. The main symptom is pain and occasionally notable deformity. There may also be a loss of functionality depending on the area affected.

Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is a respiratory illness that primarily affects infants and young children. It is characterized by inflammation and swelling of the small airways in the lungs, called bronchioles. The most common cause of bronchiolitis is the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but other viruses, such as adenoviruses and rhinoviruses, can also lead to this condition.

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which are the air passages that carry air to and from the lungs. This inflammation can lead to various symptoms, including coughing, mucus production, and difficulty breathing. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic, and it can result from both viral and bacterial infections.

Burn

A burn is an injury to the skin or underlying tissues caused by exposure to heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. Burns can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, and they are classified into different degrees based on the depth and extent of tissue damage.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that occurs when bacteria enter the skin through a break or crack, leading to redness, swelling, warmth, and tenderness in the affected area. Cellulitis most commonly affects the legs, but it can occur in other parts of the body. If left untreated, cellulitis can lead to more severe complications. Serious infections can spread deep into the body and can be life-threatening.

Colic

Colic is a term used to describe excessive, often unexplained crying and fussiness in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant. Colic typically occurs in babies during the first few months of life, starting around the second or third week and peaking around six weeks of age. Colic episodes can be intense, with the baby crying for several hours a day, several days a week, for at least three weeks.

Concussions

Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries resulting from a blow, bump, or jolt to the head or body, causing the brain to move rapidly back and forth within the skull. They are relatively common and can occur in various situations, such as sports, car accidents, falls, or workplace incidents. Despite being labeled as “mild,” concussions require careful attention due to their potential short-term and long-term effects.

Constipation

Constipation is a digestive condition in which a person has infrequent bowel movements or difficulty passing stool. It can vary in severity from occasional mild discomfort to chronic and severe symptoms. Generally, constipation leads to the passage of small quantities of dry and hard stool, typically occurring less than three times a week. Constipation can be caused by various factors, including diet, lifestyle, medical conditions, and medications.

Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a common skin condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the skin due to direct contact with an irritant or allergen. Many substances can cause this reaction, such as cosmetics, fragrances, jewelry, and plants. It often leads to uncomfortable symptoms like rashes, redness, blisters, fissures, hives, peeling, or ulcers.

Continence (Incontinence)

Incontinence, often viewed as a sensitive and stigmatized issue, is a condition characterized by the involuntary loss of bladder control, varying from a slight loss of urine after sneezing, coughing, or laughing to a complete inability to control urination. It can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds, and it’s more common than many realize.

Covid

COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention.

Coxsackie

Coxsackie, more formally known as Coxsackievirus, refers to a group of enteroviruses belonging to the Picornaviridae family. These viruses are responsible for causing a wide range of illnesses in humans, primarily during childhood and early adulthood. Coxsackieviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces. There are two main groups of Coxsackieviruses: A and B. Each group can cause different types of infections.

Croup

Croup is a common respiratory illness in children, primarily affecting those between the ages of six months and three years, although it can occur in older children as well. It is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the upper airways. This inflammation can lead to a distinctive barking cough, hoarseness, and noisy breathing, often described as a “stridor” sound when inhaling.

Depression

Depression, also known as major depressive disorder (MDD), is a serious mental health condition characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities. It is more than just feeling down or having a “bad day.” Depression can significantly impact a person’s daily life, relationships, and well-being. It causes severe symptoms that affect how a person feels, thinks, and handles daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This condition arises when the body either doesn’t produce enough insulin (a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar) or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.

Diaper rash

Diaper rash is a skin irritation occurring in infants and toddlers who wear diapers. It is characterized by redness, inflammation, and discomfort in the diaper area, including the buttocks, genital area, and folds of the skin. Diaper rash can be caused by a variety of factors, primarily related to prolonged exposure to moisture, friction, and the interaction between urine and feces with the skin.

Drug Allergies

Drug allergies are adverse reactions to medications that involve the immune system’s response to a specific drug. These reactions can range from mild skin rashes to severe, life-threatening conditions. When you initially use the medication, you might not experience any issues. However, your body’s immune system could subsequently generate antibodies in response to that drug.

Eczema

Eczema is a chronic and often uncomfortable skin condition that causes red, itchy, and sometimes painful patches of skin. It isn’t contagious. Eczema symptoms may worsen upon exposure to irritants or allergens. While there are treatments to assist in symptom management, it’s important to note that there is no cure for this condition.

Encopresis

Encopresis is a childhood disorder characterized by the repeated and voluntary or involuntary passage of feces into inappropriate places, such as clothing or the floor, after the age at which bowel control is typically established. Typically, it happens when impacted stool collects in the colon and rectum; the colon becomes too full, and liquid stool leaks around the retained stool, staining underwear. It is sometimes referred to as fecal incontinence. Encopresis is more common in children and can result from various factors, including constipation and psychological stressors.

Enterocolitis

Enterocolitis is inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and the colon (colitis). It is a condition that can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation in either of your intestines is common, but when it occurs in both, it tends to be more severe. Enterocolitis can range from mild to severe and may lead to various symptoms and complications.

Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Enuresis, commonly known as bedwetting, is a prevalent but often misunderstood condition, especially in children. It refers to the involuntary passage of urine during sleep, typically at night. Bedwetting may not always stem from an underlying condition. In children, it can be a normal part of development up to the age of five.

Environmental Allergies

Environmental allergies cause your immune system to react to normally harmless substances in the environment, such as pollen, mold spores, dust mites, or pet dander. The result is a range of uncomfortable symptoms, including congestion, itchy nose, fatigue, headache, watery eyes, and sneezing, that can significantly impact one’s quality of life.

Fifth’s disease

Fifth disease is a viral illness caused by the human parvovirus B19. It is a relatively common childhood illness that typically results in a distinctive red rash on the face, which is often described as a “slapped cheek” appearance. Fifth disease is usually a mild and self-limiting condition, but it can affect individuals of all ages.

Flu

Influenza, or the Flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It attacks the lungs, nose, and throat. Symptoms include fever, chills, muscle aches, cough, congestion, runny nose, headaches, and fatigue. It is a seasonal infection that typically occurs during the fall and winter. The Flu can affect people of all ages and lead to a wide range of symptoms, from mild to severe. Young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with chronic diseases or weak immune systems are at high risk.

Food Allergies

Food allergies occur when the immune system reacts abnormally to specific proteins in certain foods, treating them as harmful invaders. This immune response can lead to a wide range of symptoms, some of which can be severe or life-threatening, often called anaphylaxis, that may involve respiratory problems and shock.

Foreign body

A foreign body refers to any object or substance that enters the body from the outside and is not naturally present in that specific area. Foreign bodies can be introduced into various parts of the body, including the eyes, ears, nose, throat, airways, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. When a foreign body becomes lodged or trapped in these areas, it can lead to uncomfortable symptoms and complications, depending on its location.

Fussy infant

A fussy infant is a term used to describe a baby who is irritable, difficult to soothe, or exhibits frequent crying or fussiness, often for no apparent reason. It’s important to note that some level of fussiness is considered normal in babies as they adjust to the world outside the womb and go through various developmental stages. However, excessive fussiness or persistent crying can sometimes be a sign of an underlying issue that may need attention.

Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis, often referred to as the stomach flu or stomach bug, is characterized by inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It leads to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and nausea. Gastroenteritis can be caused by various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, as well as non-infectious causes like food poisoning or dietary indiscretion.

Hair Loss

Hair loss, medically known as alopecia, is a disorder caused by an interruption in the body’s cycle of hair production. It can manifest in various forms, from gradual thinning to sudden, noticeable hair loss. Hair loss can occur anywhere on the body but most commonly affects the scalp.

Hand & Upper Extremity Differences

Hand and upper extremity differences refer to a diverse range of congenital or acquired conditions that affect the hands, arms, and shoulders. These differences can impact the structure, function, and appearance of these body parts. Many conditions can cause pain and immobility throughout the arm and hands.

Hand Foot Mouth Disease

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness that primarily affects infants and children but can also occur in adults. HFMD is highly contagious and spreads through close personal contact and contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. The virus causes sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet. Symptoms include fever, sore throat, feeling sick, irritability, and loss of appetite.

Headaches & Migraines

Headaches and migraines are common neurological conditions. While they both involve pain in the head, they differ in their causes, symptoms, and treatment approaches. Migraine headaches often come with warning signs and are triggered by factors like, hormonal fluctuations, specific dietary foods, stress, or physical activity. Migraines typically involve intense throbbing pain localized to one area of the head, with the severity varying. Additionally, nausea and heightened sensitivity to light and sound are frequently experienced symptoms. Managing migraine headaches can involve preventive and pain-relieving medications.

Hearing Loss

Hearing loss encompasses a spectrum of conditions, ranging from mild to profound, and can occur at any age. Hearing impairment typically stems from damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. This condition can manifest as congenital, meaning it’s present at birth, or result from the natural wear and tear associated with aging. Additionally, various factors like injury, illness, and certain medications can contribute to hearing loss. Prolonged exposure to loud noises is another common cause.

Hip Problems

Hip problems encompass a range of medical conditions and issues that affect the hip joint, a crucial part of the human musculoskeletal system. The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint formed by the connection of the femur (thigh bone) and the pelvis. Hip problems can impact individuals of all ages and can result from various causes like bursitis, hamstring strain, Iliotibial band syndrome, or hip impingement syndrome.

Hives

Hives, also known as urticaria, are a common skin condition characterized by raised, itchy welts or bumps on the skin. These welts can vary in size, shape, and color, and they often appear suddenly and can change location rapidly. Hives can be acute, lasting for a few hours to several weeks, or they can become chronic, lasting for six weeks or more. Often, the cause of chronic hives isn’t clear.

Impetigo

Impetigo is a contagious bacterial skin infection that primarily affects children but can occur in people of all ages. It is caused by either Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria and is characterized by the presence of red sores or blisters that burst and form a honey-colored crust. Impetigo is typically a mild and superficial skin infection, but if left untreated, it can spread and lead to complications.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that affect the digestive tract. It primarily involves two main conditions: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Prolonged inflammation results in damage to the GI tract. IBD can lead to a wide range of symptoms and complications like diarrhea (often loose and watery with Crohn’s disease or bloody with ulcerative colitis), severe or chronic cramping pain in the abdomen, or loss of appetite, leading to weight loss, amongst others.

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a physiological condition in which the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body by facilitating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it is used for energy or stored for future use. When cells become resistant to insulin, it leads to several metabolic disturbances and can ultimately result in high blood sugar levels, known as hyperglycemia.

Laryngitis

Laryngitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the larynx, which is commonly known as the voice box. This inflammation can result in hoarseness or even the temporary loss of voice. Laryngitis can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, overuse or strain of the vocal cords, and exposure to irritants.

Lice

Lice, also known as pediculosis, are tiny parasitic insects that infest the hair and scalp of humans and other animals. They feed on blood by biting the skin, causing itching and discomfort. Lice are highly contagious and can spread from person to person through direct head-to-head contact or by sharing personal items like combs, brushes, hats, and bedding.

Limb Differences

Limb differences refer to variations in the size, shape, or structure of an individual’s limbs, which can be present at birth or acquired due to injury, illness, or medical conditions. Limb differences can affect the arms, hands, legs, or feet and may range from minor anomalies to more significant variations. These differences can have a wide range of causes and implications, and they often require individualized care and support.

Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks, also known as deer ticks. Lyme disease is prevalent in certain regions of the United States, Europe, and Asia, where these ticks are commonly found.

Moles

Moles are common skin growths that can appear anywhere on the body. They are typically benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Moles develop when clusters of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the skin, grow in a concentrated area. These melanocytes give moles their characteristic color, which ranges from tan to dark brown or black. Most adults have between 10 and 40 common moles.

Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis, commonly known as mono, is a viral illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is most prevalent in adolescents and young adults but can affect people of all ages. Mono is often characterized by symptoms such as fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and extreme fatigue. Mono is transmitted by saliva.

Optical Migraine

Optical migraine, also known as ocular migraine or migraine with aura, is a type of migraine headache characterized by visual disturbances or disturbances in other senses that precede or accompany the headache. Optical migraine is caused by the blood vessels in the eye suddenly narrowing (constricting), reducing the blood flow to the eye.

Otitis Externa

Otitis externa, commonly known as swimmer’s ear, is an inflammation or infection of the ear canal, the tube that extends from the outer ear to the eardrum. This condition typically occurs when water, bacteria, or fungi enter the ear canal and cause irritation or infection. The main symptom is redness in the outer ear accompanied by warmth and pain.

Otitis Media

Otitis media is a common medical condition that involves inflammation or infection of the middle ear, which is the space behind the eardrum. It can affect individuals of all ages but is particularly prevalent in children. Otitis media can be acute or chronic and may cause various symptoms and complications.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a potentially severe respiratory infection that affects one or both lungs. It causes the air sacs, or alveoli, of the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus. Pneumonia can be caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as non-infectious factors, such as inhaling irritants or aspirating food or liquids into the lungs.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS may not ovulate, have high levels of androgens, and have many small cysts on the ovaries. PCOS is a chronic condition that can have significant effects on a person’s overall health and quality of life and can cause missed or irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne, infertility, and weight gain.

Puberty Disorders

Puberty disorders refer to medical conditions that disrupt the normal process of puberty, the period of physical and sexual maturation that typically occurs during adolescence. Puberty is a complex biological process involving hormonal changes that lead to the development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth spurts, and reproductive capability. Puberty disorders can manifest as early or delayed onset of these changes and have various underlying causes.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that can infect people of all ages. It is a significant cause of respiratory tract infections, particularly in infants and young children. RSV can lead to a range of respiratory illnesses, from mild cold-like symptoms to more severe conditions such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Infants and older adults are more likely to develop severe RSV and need hospitalization.

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that affects the red blood cells. It is an inherited condition, meaning it is passed down from parents to their children through their genes. SCD is characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. This abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S (HbS), can cause the red blood cells to become misshapen and rigid, taking on a characteristic sickle or crescent shape.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a common and potentially serious sleep disorder characterized by interruptions in breathing during sleep. These interruptions are known as apneas and can lead to disrupted sleep patterns and several health problems. There are two primary types of sleep apnea: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA), with obstructive sleep apnea being the most common. If you snore loudly and feel tired even after a night’s sleep, you might have sleep apnea.

Stinging Insect Allergies

Stinging insect allergies, or hymenoptera venom allergies, are allergic reactions triggered by the venom injected into the skin when a person is stung or bitten by certain insects. The most common culprits are bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, and ants. While most people experience localized pain, swelling, and redness at the site of a sting, individuals with stinging insect allergies can have severe and potentially life-threatening reactions.

Strep Throat

Strep throat, short for streptococcal throat infection, is a bacterial infection caused by the Group A Streptococcus bacteria, specifically Streptococcus pyogenes. It is a common and highly contagious condition that primarily affects the throat and tonsils. Common symptoms include sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

Sunburn

Sunburn is a skin condition that occurs when the skin is overexposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources, like tanning beds. UV radiation can damage the DNA in skin cells, leading to inflammation and a visible reaction on the skin’s surface. Sunburn is typically characterized by redness, warmth, pain, and sometimes blistering of the affected skin.

Thrush

Thrush, also known as oral candidiasis or oropharyngeal candidiasis, is a fungal infection of the mouth and throat caused by an overgrowth of the yeast Candida. Candida is naturally present in the mouth, but various factors can lead to its overgrowth, causing symptoms of thrush. Thrush is most common in infants, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by the inflammation of the tonsils, which are two small, gland-like structures located at the back of the throat. Tonsillitis is usually caused by a viral infection but can be from a bacterial infection. It can lead to symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever. Treatment can range from home-care remedies to surgical removal.

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common medical condition that occurs when bacteria or other microbes enter and infect any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. UTIs can affect people of all ages and genders, but they are more common in women due to the shorter length of the female urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. UTIs vary in severity, and if left untreated, they can lead to more severe complications.

Viral infection

A viral infection is an illness caused by the invasion and multiplication of viruses within the body’s cells. Viruses are tiny infectious agents that can only replicate inside living host cells. When a virus infects a host, it uses the host’s cellular machinery to reproduce and spread, often leading to various symptoms and health problems. Viral infections can affect many parts of the body and range from mild to severe.

Walking Pneumonia

Walking pneumonia is milder compared to the more severe and acute pneumonia typically associated with symptoms like high fever and severe chest pain. It is usually caused by atypical bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, or Legionella pneumophila, or sometimes by viruses like adenoviruses or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Abscess

An abscess is a localized collection of pus that forms within tissues, organs, or spaces in the body from infection, inflammation, or the body’s immune response to foreign substances. Abscesses can occur in various parts of the body and may vary in size from small and barely noticeable to large and painful. Skin abscesses may look red and swollen.

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Acne

Acne, or acne vulgaris, is a common skin condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by the formation of pimples, blackheads, whiteheads, and sometimes deeper cysts or nodules on the skin, particularly on the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

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Acute upper respiratory infection

Acute upper respiratory infection (URI), often referred to as the common cold, is a viral infection that primarily affects the upper respiratory tract. It is a prevalent and highly contagious condition that can occur year-round but is more common during colder months. Acute URIs are typically caused by various viruses, including rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses.

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Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, commonly known as hay fever, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal passages caused by an allergic reaction to allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or mold spores. It is a common condition that affects people of all ages and can lead to a range of bothersome symptoms, including runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, throat, or ears, coughing, fatigue, or headaches.

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anaphylaxis

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Anxiety

Anxiety is a natural and adaptive human response to stress or perceived threats. It is often described as a feeling of unease, worry, or fear, typically accompanied by physical sensations like increased heart rate, muscle tension, and restlessness. While anxiety is a normal part of life and can be helpful in certain situations, it can become problematic when it becomes chronic, excessive, or overwhelming.

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Asthma

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects the lungs. It is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which can lead to several symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, known as ADHD, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects people’s ability to focus, control impulses, and regulate their energy levels. It is a condition that can impact both children and adults, although symptoms often appear in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although ADHD can’t be cured, it can be successfully managed.

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Balance Problems (Vestibular Disorders)

Balance problems, often associated with vestibular disorders, can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life by disrupting their sense of equilibrium and spatial orientation. These disorders arise from issues within the vestibular system, a complex network of structures within the inner ear and brain that control balance and coordination.

Learn More

bedwetting

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Birthmarks

Birthmarks are common skin markings that are present at or shortly after birth. They come in various shapes, sizes, and colors and can appear anywhere on the body. While birthmarks are generally harmless and benign, occasionally, a birthmark may be a sign of other problems or diseases.

Learn More

Blocked Tear Duct

A blocked tear duct, medically known as nasolacrimal duct obstruction, is a common eye condition that occurs when the tear drainage system in the eye becomes partially or completely blocked. This condition can affect people of all ages and lead to several uncomfortable symptoms.

Learn More

Bone Diseases

Bone diseases encompass a wide range of medical conditions that affect the skeletal system, which includes bones, joints, and connective tissues. These disorders can result from various causes and significantly impact a person’s mobility, overall health, and quality of life.

Learn More

Broken Bones (Fractures)

Fractures are a prevalent form of injury that can occur at any age and affect people from all walks of life. They result from trauma, overuse, and diseases that weaken bones. Fractures can vary in severity and location, and their treatment depends on factors like the type and location of the fracture and the individual’s overall health. The main symptom is pain and occasionally notable deformity. There may also be a loss of functionality depending on the area affected.

Learn More

Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is a respiratory illness that primarily affects infants and young children. It is characterized by inflammation and swelling of the small airways in the lungs, called bronchioles. The most common cause of bronchiolitis is the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but other viruses, such as adenoviruses and rhinoviruses, can also lead to this condition.

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Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which are the air passages that carry air to and from the lungs. This inflammation can lead to various symptoms, including coughing, mucus production, and difficulty breathing. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic, and it can result from both viral and bacterial infections.

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Burn

A burn is an injury to the skin or underlying tissues caused by exposure to heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. Burns can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, and they are classified into different degrees based on the depth and extent of tissue damage.

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Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that occurs when bacteria enter the skin through a break or crack, leading to redness, swelling, warmth, and tenderness in the affected area. Cellulitis most commonly affects the legs, but it can occur in other parts of the body. If left untreated, cellulitis can lead to more severe complications. Serious infections can spread deep into the body and can be life-threatening.

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Colic

Colic is a term used to describe excessive, often unexplained crying and fussiness in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant. Colic typically occurs in babies during the first few months of life, starting around the second or third week and peaking around six weeks of age. Colic episodes can be intense, with the baby crying for several hours a day, several days a week, for at least three weeks.

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Concussions

Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries resulting from a blow, bump, or jolt to the head or body, causing the brain to move rapidly back and forth within the skull. They are relatively common and can occur in various situations, such as sports, car accidents, falls, or workplace incidents. Despite being labeled as “mild,” concussions require careful attention due to their potential short-term and long-term effects.

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conjunctivitis

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Constipation

Constipation is a digestive condition in which a person has infrequent bowel movements or difficulty passing stool. It can vary in severity from occasional mild discomfort to chronic and severe symptoms. Generally, constipation leads to the passage of small quantities of dry and hard stool, typically occurring less than three times a week. Constipation can be caused by various factors, including diet, lifestyle, medical conditions, and medications.

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Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a common skin condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the skin due to direct contact with an irritant or allergen. Many substances can cause this reaction, such as cosmetics, fragrances, jewelry, and plants. It often leads to uncomfortable symptoms like rashes, redness, blisters, fissures, hives, peeling, or ulcers.

Learn More

continence

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Continence (Incontinence)

Incontinence, often viewed as a sensitive and stigmatized issue, is a condition characterized by the involuntary loss of bladder control, varying from a slight loss of urine after sneezing, coughing, or laughing to a complete inability to control urination. It can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds, and it’s more common than many realize.

Learn More

Covid

COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention.

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Coxsackie

Coxsackie, more formally known as Coxsackievirus, refers to a group of enteroviruses belonging to the Picornaviridae family. These viruses are responsible for causing a wide range of illnesses in humans, primarily during childhood and early adulthood. Coxsackieviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces. There are two main groups of Coxsackieviruses: A and B. Each group can cause different types of infections.

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Croup

Croup is a common respiratory illness in children, primarily affecting those between the ages of six months and three years, although it can occur in older children as well. It is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the upper airways. This inflammation can lead to a distinctive barking cough, hoarseness, and noisy breathing, often described as a “stridor” sound when inhaling.

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Dehydration

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Depression

Depression, also known as major depressive disorder (MDD), is a serious mental health condition characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities. It is more than just feeling down or having a “bad day.” Depression can significantly impact a person’s daily life, relationships, and well-being. It causes severe symptoms that affect how a person feels, thinks, and handles daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working.

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developmental delay

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Developmental milestones

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Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This condition arises when the body either doesn’t produce enough insulin (a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar) or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.

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Diaper rash

Diaper rash is a skin irritation occurring in infants and toddlers who wear diapers. It is characterized by redness, inflammation, and discomfort in the diaper area, including the buttocks, genital area, and folds of the skin. Diaper rash can be caused by a variety of factors, primarily related to prolonged exposure to moisture, friction, and the interaction between urine and feces with the skin.

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drowning

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Drug Allergies

Drug allergies are adverse reactions to medications that involve the immune system’s response to a specific drug. These reactions can range from mild skin rashes to severe, life-threatening conditions. When you initially use the medication, you might not experience any issues. However, your body’s immune system could subsequently generate antibodies in response to that drug.

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dry drowning

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dysuria

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Eczema

Eczema is a chronic and often uncomfortable skin condition that causes red, itchy, and sometimes painful patches of skin. It isn’t contagious. Eczema symptoms may worsen upon exposure to irritants or allergens. While there are treatments to assist in symptom management, it’s important to note that there is no cure for this condition.

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Encopresis

Encopresis is a childhood disorder characterized by the repeated and voluntary or involuntary passage of feces into inappropriate places, such as clothing or the floor, after the age at which bowel control is typically established. Typically, it happens when impacted stool collects in the colon and rectum; the colon becomes too full, and liquid stool leaks around the retained stool, staining underwear. It is sometimes referred to as fecal incontinence. Encopresis is more common in children and can result from various factors, including constipation and psychological stressors.

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Enterocolitis

Enterocolitis is inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and the colon (colitis). It is a condition that can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation in either of your intestines is common, but when it occurs in both, it tends to be more severe. Enterocolitis can range from mild to severe and may lead to various symptoms and complications.

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enuresis

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Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Enuresis, commonly known as bedwetting, is a prevalent but often misunderstood condition, especially in children. It refers to the involuntary passage of urine during sleep, typically at night. Bedwetting may not always stem from an underlying condition. In children, it can be a normal part of development up to the age of five.

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Environmental Allergies

Environmental allergies cause your immune system to react to normally harmless substances in the environment, such as pollen, mold spores, dust mites, or pet dander. The result is a range of uncomfortable symptoms, including congestion, itchy nose, fatigue, headache, watery eyes, and sneezing, that can significantly impact one’s quality of life.

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extremity differences

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eye swelling

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Fifth’s disease

Fifth disease is a viral illness caused by the human parvovirus B19. It is a relatively common childhood illness that typically results in a distinctive red rash on the face, which is often described as a “slapped cheek” appearance. Fifth disease is usually a mild and self-limiting condition, but it can affect individuals of all ages.

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Flu

Influenza, or the Flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It attacks the lungs, nose, and throat. Symptoms include fever, chills, muscle aches, cough, congestion, runny nose, headaches, and fatigue. It is a seasonal infection that typically occurs during the fall and winter. The Flu can affect people of all ages and lead to a wide range of symptoms, from mild to severe. Young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with chronic diseases or weak immune systems are at high risk.

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Food Allergies

Food allergies occur when the immune system reacts abnormally to specific proteins in certain foods, treating them as harmful invaders. This immune response can lead to a wide range of symptoms, some of which can be severe or life-threatening, often called anaphylaxis, that may involve respiratory problems and shock.

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Foreign body

A foreign body refers to any object or substance that enters the body from the outside and is not naturally present in that specific area. Foreign bodies can be introduced into various parts of the body, including the eyes, ears, nose, throat, airways, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. When a foreign body becomes lodged or trapped in these areas, it can lead to uncomfortable symptoms and complications, depending on its location.

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Fractures

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Fussy infant

A fussy infant is a term used to describe a baby who is irritable, difficult to soothe, or exhibits frequent crying or fussiness, often for no apparent reason. It’s important to note that some level of fussiness is considered normal in babies as they adjust to the world outside the womb and go through various developmental stages. However, excessive fussiness or persistent crying can sometimes be a sign of an underlying issue that may need attention.

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Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis, often referred to as the stomach flu or stomach bug, is characterized by inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It leads to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and nausea. Gastroenteritis can be caused by various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, as well as non-infectious causes like food poisoning or dietary indiscretion.

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Hair Loss

Hair loss, medically known as alopecia, is a disorder caused by an interruption in the body’s cycle of hair production. It can manifest in various forms, from gradual thinning to sudden, noticeable hair loss. Hair loss can occur anywhere on the body but most commonly affects the scalp.

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Hand & Upper Extremity Differences

Hand and upper extremity differences refer to a diverse range of congenital or acquired conditions that affect the hands, arms, and shoulders. These differences can impact the structure, function, and appearance of these body parts. Many conditions can cause pain and immobility throughout the arm and hands.

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Hand Foot Mouth Disease

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness that primarily affects infants and children but can also occur in adults. HFMD is highly contagious and spreads through close personal contact and contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. The virus causes sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet. Symptoms include fever, sore throat, feeling sick, irritability, and loss of appetite.

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Headache

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headaches

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Headaches & Migraines

Headaches and migraines are common neurological conditions. While they both involve pain in the head, they differ in their causes, symptoms, and treatment approaches. Migraine headaches often come with warning signs and are triggered by factors like, hormonal fluctuations, specific dietary foods, stress, or physical activity. Migraines typically involve intense throbbing pain localized to one area of the head, with the severity varying. Additionally, nausea and heightened sensitivity to light and sound are frequently experienced symptoms. Managing migraine headaches can involve preventive and pain-relieving medications.

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headaches and migraine

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Hearing Loss

Hearing loss encompasses a spectrum of conditions, ranging from mild to profound, and can occur at any age. Hearing impairment typically stems from damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. This condition can manifest as congenital, meaning it’s present at birth, or result from the natural wear and tear associated with aging. Additionally, various factors like injury, illness, and certain medications can contribute to hearing loss. Prolonged exposure to loud noises is another common cause.

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Hip Problems

Hip problems encompass a range of medical conditions and issues that affect the hip joint, a crucial part of the human musculoskeletal system. The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint formed by the connection of the femur (thigh bone) and the pelvis. Hip problems can impact individuals of all ages and can result from various causes like bursitis, hamstring strain, Iliotibial band syndrome, or hip impingement syndrome.

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Hives

Hives, also known as urticaria, are a common skin condition characterized by raised, itchy welts or bumps on the skin. These welts can vary in size, shape, and color, and they often appear suddenly and can change location rapidly. Hives can be acute, lasting for a few hours to several weeks, or they can become chronic, lasting for six weeks or more. Often, the cause of chronic hives isn’t clear.

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Impetigo

Impetigo is a contagious bacterial skin infection that primarily affects children but can occur in people of all ages. It is caused by either Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria and is characterized by the presence of red sores or blisters that burst and form a honey-colored crust. Impetigo is typically a mild and superficial skin infection, but if left untreated, it can spread and lead to complications.

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incontinence

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that affect the digestive tract. It primarily involves two main conditions: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Prolonged inflammation results in damage to the GI tract. IBD can lead to a wide range of symptoms and complications like diarrhea (often loose and watery with Crohn’s disease or bloody with ulcerative colitis), severe or chronic cramping pain in the abdomen, or loss of appetite, leading to weight loss, amongst others.

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Influenza

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Insomnia

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Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a physiological condition in which the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body by facilitating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it is used for energy or stored for future use. When cells become resistant to insulin, it leads to several metabolic disturbances and can ultimately result in high blood sugar levels, known as hyperglycemia.

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Laryngitis

Laryngitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the larynx, which is commonly known as the voice box. This inflammation can result in hoarseness or even the temporary loss of voice. Laryngitis can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, overuse or strain of the vocal cords, and exposure to irritants.

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Lice

Lice, also known as pediculosis, are tiny parasitic insects that infest the hair and scalp of humans and other animals. They feed on blood by biting the skin, causing itching and discomfort. Lice are highly contagious and can spread from person to person through direct head-to-head contact or by sharing personal items like combs, brushes, hats, and bedding.

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Limb Differences

Limb differences refer to variations in the size, shape, or structure of an individual’s limbs, which can be present at birth or acquired due to injury, illness, or medical conditions. Limb differences can affect the arms, hands, legs, or feet and may range from minor anomalies to more significant variations. These differences can have a wide range of causes and implications, and they often require individualized care and support.

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Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks, also known as deer ticks. Lyme disease is prevalent in certain regions of the United States, Europe, and Asia, where these ticks are commonly found.

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Migraines

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Moles

Moles are common skin growths that can appear anywhere on the body. They are typically benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Moles develop when clusters of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the skin, grow in a concentrated area. These melanocytes give moles their characteristic color, which ranges from tan to dark brown or black. Most adults have between 10 and 40 common moles.

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Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis, commonly known as mono, is a viral illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is most prevalent in adolescents and young adults but can affect people of all ages. Mono is often characterized by symptoms such as fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and extreme fatigue. Mono is transmitted by saliva.

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Newborn pimples

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Obesity

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Optical Migraine

Optical migraine, also known as ocular migraine or migraine with aura, is a type of migraine headache characterized by visual disturbances or disturbances in other senses that precede or accompany the headache. Optical migraine is caused by the blood vessels in the eye suddenly narrowing (constricting), reducing the blood flow to the eye.

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Otitis Externa

Otitis externa, commonly known as swimmer’s ear, is an inflammation or infection of the ear canal, the tube that extends from the outer ear to the eardrum. This condition typically occurs when water, bacteria, or fungi enter the ear canal and cause irritation or infection. The main symptom is redness in the outer ear accompanied by warmth and pain.

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Otitis Media

Otitis media is a common medical condition that involves inflammation or infection of the middle ear, which is the space behind the eardrum. It can affect individuals of all ages but is particularly prevalent in children. Otitis media can be acute or chronic and may cause various symptoms and complications.

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Pediatric Diabetes

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pink eye

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a potentially severe respiratory infection that affects one or both lungs. It causes the air sacs, or alveoli, of the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus. Pneumonia can be caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as non-infectious factors, such as inhaling irritants or aspirating food or liquids into the lungs.

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polycystic ovarian disease

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS may not ovulate, have high levels of androgens, and have many small cysts on the ovaries. PCOS is a chronic condition that can have significant effects on a person’s overall health and quality of life and can cause missed or irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne, infertility, and weight gain.

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Puberty Disorders

Puberty disorders refer to medical conditions that disrupt the normal process of puberty, the period of physical and sexual maturation that typically occurs during adolescence. Puberty is a complex biological process involving hormonal changes that lead to the development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth spurts, and reproductive capability. Puberty disorders can manifest as early or delayed onset of these changes and have various underlying causes.

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that can infect people of all ages. It is a significant cause of respiratory tract infections, particularly in infants and young children. RSV can lead to a range of respiratory illnesses, from mild cold-like symptoms to more severe conditions such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Infants and older adults are more likely to develop severe RSV and need hospitalization.

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secondary drowning

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Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that affects the red blood cells. It is an inherited condition, meaning it is passed down from parents to their children through their genes. SCD is characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. This abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S (HbS), can cause the red blood cells to become misshapen and rigid, taking on a characteristic sickle or crescent shape.

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sinusitis

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Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a common and potentially serious sleep disorder characterized by interruptions in breathing during sleep. These interruptions are known as apneas and can lead to disrupted sleep patterns and several health problems. There are two primary types of sleep apnea: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA), with obstructive sleep apnea being the most common. If you snore loudly and feel tired even after a night’s sleep, you might have sleep apnea.

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Stinging Insect Allergies

Stinging insect allergies, or hymenoptera venom allergies, are allergic reactions triggered by the venom injected into the skin when a person is stung or bitten by certain insects. The most common culprits are bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, and ants. While most people experience localized pain, swelling, and redness at the site of a sting, individuals with stinging insect allergies can have severe and potentially life-threatening reactions.

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Strep Throat

Strep throat, short for streptococcal throat infection, is a bacterial infection caused by the Group A Streptococcus bacteria, specifically Streptococcus pyogenes. It is a common and highly contagious condition that primarily affects the throat and tonsils. Common symptoms include sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

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Sunburn

Sunburn is a skin condition that occurs when the skin is overexposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources, like tanning beds. UV radiation can damage the DNA in skin cells, leading to inflammation and a visible reaction on the skin’s surface. Sunburn is typically characterized by redness, warmth, pain, and sometimes blistering of the affected skin.

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Thrush

Thrush, also known as oral candidiasis or oropharyngeal candidiasis, is a fungal infection of the mouth and throat caused by an overgrowth of the yeast Candida. Candida is naturally present in the mouth, but various factors can lead to its overgrowth, causing symptoms of thrush. Thrush is most common in infants, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by the inflammation of the tonsils, which are two small, gland-like structures located at the back of the throat. Tonsillitis is usually caused by a viral infection but can be from a bacterial infection. It can lead to symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever. Treatment can range from home-care remedies to surgical removal.

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Urinary tract infection

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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common medical condition that occurs when bacteria or other microbes enter and infect any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. UTIs can affect people of all ages and genders, but they are more common in women due to the shorter length of the female urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. UTIs vary in severity, and if left untreated, they can lead to more severe complications.

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Viral infection

A viral infection is an illness caused by the invasion and multiplication of viruses within the body’s cells. Viruses are tiny infectious agents that can only replicate inside living host cells. When a virus infects a host, it uses the host’s cellular machinery to reproduce and spread, often leading to various symptoms and health problems. Viral infections can affect many parts of the body and range from mild to severe.

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Walking Pneumonia

Walking pneumonia is milder compared to the more severe and acute pneumonia typically associated with symptoms like high fever and severe chest pain. It is usually caused by atypical bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, or Legionella pneumophila, or sometimes by viruses like adenoviruses or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

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Wellness

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Acne

Acne, or acne vulgaris, is a common skin condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by the formation of pimples, blackheads, whiteheads, and sometimes deeper cysts or nodules on the skin, particularly on the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders.

Asthma

Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects the lungs. It is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which can lead to several symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, known as ADHD, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects people’s ability to focus, control impulses, and regulate their energy levels. It is a condition that can impact both children and adults, although symptoms often appear in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although ADHD can’t be cured, it can be successfully managed.

Balance Problems (Vestibular Disorders)

Balance problems, often associated with vestibular disorders, can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life by disrupting their sense of equilibrium and spatial orientation. These disorders arise from issues within the vestibular system, a complex network of structures within the inner ear and brain that control balance and coordination.

Birthmarks

Birthmarks are common skin markings that are present at or shortly after birth. They come in various shapes, sizes, and colors and can appear anywhere on the body. While birthmarks are generally harmless and benign, occasionally, a birthmark may be a sign of other problems or diseases.

Blocked Tear Duct

A blocked tear duct, medically known as nasolacrimal duct obstruction, is a common eye condition that occurs when the tear drainage system in the eye becomes partially or completely blocked. This condition can affect people of all ages and lead to several uncomfortable symptoms.

Bone Diseases

Bone diseases encompass a wide range of medical conditions that affect the skeletal system, which includes bones, joints, and connective tissues. These disorders can result from various causes and significantly impact a person’s mobility, overall health, and quality of life.

Broken Bones (Fractures)

Fractures are a prevalent form of injury that can occur at any age and affect people from all walks of life. They result from trauma, overuse, and diseases that weaken bones. Fractures can vary in severity and location, and their treatment depends on factors like the type and location of the fracture and the individual’s overall health. The main symptom is pain and occasionally notable deformity. There may also be a loss of functionality depending on the area affected.

Concussions

Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries resulting from a blow, bump, or jolt to the head or body, causing the brain to move rapidly back and forth within the skull. They are relatively common and can occur in various situations, such as sports, car accidents, falls, or workplace incidents. Despite being labeled as “mild,” concussions require careful attention due to their potential short-term and long-term effects.

Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a common skin condition characterized by inflammation and irritation of the skin due to direct contact with an irritant or allergen. Many substances can cause this reaction, such as cosmetics, fragrances, jewelry, and plants. It often leads to uncomfortable symptoms like rashes, redness, blisters, fissures, hives, peeling, or ulcers.

Continence (Incontinence)

Incontinence, often viewed as a sensitive and stigmatized issue, is a condition characterized by the involuntary loss of bladder control, varying from a slight loss of urine after sneezing, coughing, or laughing to a complete inability to control urination. It can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds, and it’s more common than many realize.

Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This condition arises when the body either doesn’t produce enough insulin (a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar) or cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.

Drug Allergies

Drug allergies are adverse reactions to medications that involve the immune system’s response to a specific drug. These reactions can range from mild skin rashes to severe, life-threatening conditions. When you initially use the medication, you might not experience any issues. However, your body’s immune system could subsequently generate antibodies in response to that drug.

Eczema

Eczema is a chronic and often uncomfortable skin condition that causes red, itchy, and sometimes painful patches of skin. It isn’t contagious. Eczema symptoms may worsen upon exposure to irritants or allergens. While there are treatments to assist in symptom management, it’s important to note that there is no cure for this condition.

Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Enuresis, commonly known as bedwetting, is a prevalent but often misunderstood condition, especially in children. It refers to the involuntary passage of urine during sleep, typically at night. Bedwetting may not always stem from an underlying condition. In children, it can be a normal part of development up to the age of five.

Environmental Allergies

Environmental allergies cause your immune system to react to normally harmless substances in the environment, such as pollen, mold spores, dust mites, or pet dander. The result is a range of uncomfortable symptoms, including congestion, itchy nose, fatigue, headache, watery eyes, and sneezing, that can significantly impact one’s quality of life.

Food Allergies

Food allergies occur when the immune system reacts abnormally to specific proteins in certain foods, treating them as harmful invaders. This immune response can lead to a wide range of symptoms, some of which can be severe or life-threatening, often called anaphylaxis, that may involve respiratory problems and shock.

Hair Loss

Hair loss, medically known as alopecia, is a disorder caused by an interruption in the body’s cycle of hair production. It can manifest in various forms, from gradual thinning to sudden, noticeable hair loss. Hair loss can occur anywhere on the body but most commonly affects the scalp.

Hand & Upper Extremity Differences

Hand and upper extremity differences refer to a diverse range of congenital or acquired conditions that affect the hands, arms, and shoulders. These differences can impact the structure, function, and appearance of these body parts. Many conditions can cause pain and immobility throughout the arm and hands.

Headaches & Migraines

Headaches and migraines are common neurological conditions. While they both involve pain in the head, they differ in their causes, symptoms, and treatment approaches. Migraine headaches often come with warning signs and are triggered by factors like, hormonal fluctuations, specific dietary foods, stress, or physical activity. Migraines typically involve intense throbbing pain localized to one area of the head, with the severity varying. Additionally, nausea and heightened sensitivity to light and sound are frequently experienced symptoms. Managing migraine headaches can involve preventive and pain-relieving medications.

Hearing Loss

Hearing loss encompasses a spectrum of conditions, ranging from mild to profound, and can occur at any age. Hearing impairment typically stems from damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. This condition can manifest as congenital, meaning it’s present at birth, or result from the natural wear and tear associated with aging. Additionally, various factors like injury, illness, and certain medications can contribute to hearing loss. Prolonged exposure to loud noises is another common cause.

Hip Problems

Hip problems encompass a range of medical conditions and issues that affect the hip joint, a crucial part of the human musculoskeletal system. The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint formed by the connection of the femur (thigh bone) and the pelvis. Hip problems can impact individuals of all ages and can result from various causes like bursitis, hamstring strain, Iliotibial band syndrome, or hip impingement syndrome.

Hives

Hives, also known as urticaria, are a common skin condition characterized by raised, itchy welts or bumps on the skin. These welts can vary in size, shape, and color, and they often appear suddenly and can change location rapidly. Hives can be acute, lasting for a few hours to several weeks, or they can become chronic, lasting for six weeks or more. Often, the cause of chronic hives isn’t clear.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that affect the digestive tract. It primarily involves two main conditions: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Prolonged inflammation results in damage to the GI tract. IBD can lead to a wide range of symptoms and complications like diarrhea (often loose and watery with Crohn’s disease or bloody with ulcerative colitis), severe or chronic cramping pain in the abdomen, or loss of appetite, leading to weight loss, amongst others.

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a physiological condition in which the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body by facilitating the uptake of glucose from the bloodstream into cells, where it is used for energy or stored for future use. When cells become resistant to insulin, it leads to several metabolic disturbances and can ultimately result in high blood sugar levels, known as hyperglycemia.

Limb Differences

Limb differences refer to variations in the size, shape, or structure of an individual’s limbs, which can be present at birth or acquired due to injury, illness, or medical conditions. Limb differences can affect the arms, hands, legs, or feet and may range from minor anomalies to more significant variations. These differences can have a wide range of causes and implications, and they often require individualized care and support.

Moles

Moles are common skin growths that can appear anywhere on the body. They are typically benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Moles develop when clusters of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the skin, grow in a concentrated area. These melanocytes give moles their characteristic color, which ranges from tan to dark brown or black. Most adults have between 10 and 40 common moles.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS may not ovulate, have high levels of androgens, and have many small cysts on the ovaries. PCOS is a chronic condition that can have significant effects on a person’s overall health and quality of life and can cause missed or irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth, acne, infertility, and weight gain.

Puberty Disorders

Puberty disorders refer to medical conditions that disrupt the normal process of puberty, the period of physical and sexual maturation that typically occurs during adolescence. Puberty is a complex biological process involving hormonal changes that lead to the development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth spurts, and reproductive capability. Puberty disorders can manifest as early or delayed onset of these changes and have various underlying causes.

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that affects the red blood cells. It is an inherited condition, meaning it is passed down from parents to their children through their genes. SCD is characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. This abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S (HbS), can cause the red blood cells to become misshapen and rigid, taking on a characteristic sickle or crescent shape.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a common and potentially serious sleep disorder characterized by interruptions in breathing during sleep. These interruptions are known as apneas and can lead to disrupted sleep patterns and several health problems. There are two primary types of sleep apnea: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA), with obstructive sleep apnea being the most common. If you snore loudly and feel tired even after a night’s sleep, you might have sleep apnea.

Stinging Insect Allergies

Stinging insect allergies, or hymenoptera venom allergies, are allergic reactions triggered by the venom injected into the skin when a person is stung or bitten by certain insects. The most common culprits are bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, and ants. While most people experience localized pain, swelling, and redness at the site of a sting, individuals with stinging insect allergies can have severe and potentially life-threatening reactions. 

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common medical condition that occurs when bacteria or other microbes enter and infect any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. UTIs can affect people of all ages and genders, but they are more common in women due to the shorter length of the female urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. UTIs vary in severity, and if left untreated, they can lead to more severe complications. 

Optical Migraine

Optical migraine, also known as ocular migraine or migraine with aura, is a type of migraine headache characterized by visual disturbances or disturbances in other senses that precede or accompany the headache. Optical migraine is caused by the blood vessels in the eye suddenly narrowing (constricting), reducing the blood flow to the eye.

Otitis Media

Otitis media is a common medical condition that involves inflammation or infection of the middle ear, which is the space behind the eardrum. It can affect individuals of all ages but is particularly prevalent in children. Otitis media can be acute or chronic and may cause various symptoms and complications.

Otitis Externa

Otitis externa, commonly known as swimmer’s ear, is an inflammation or infection of the ear canal, the tube that extends from the outer ear to the eardrum. This condition typically occurs when water, bacteria, or fungi enter the ear canal and cause irritation or infection. The main symptom is redness in the outer ear accompanied by warmth and pain.

Strep Throat

Strep throat, short for streptococcal throat infection, is a bacterial infection caused by the Group A Streptococcus bacteria, specifically Streptococcus pyogenes. It is a common and highly contagious condition that primarily affects the throat and tonsils. Common symptoms include sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

Impetigo

Impetigo is a contagious bacterial skin infection that primarily affects children but can occur in people of all ages. It is caused by either Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria and is characterized by the presence of red sores or blisters that burst and form a honey-colored crust. Impetigo is typically a mild and superficial skin infection, but if left untreated, it can spread and lead to complications. 

Coxsackie

Coxsackie, more formally known as Coxsackievirus, refers to a group of enteroviruses belonging to the Picornaviridae family. These viruses are responsible for causing a wide range of illnesses in humans, primarily during childhood and early adulthood. Coxsackieviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through close contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces. There are two main groups of Coxsackieviruses: A and B. Each group can cause different types of infections.

Hand Foot Mouth Disease

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness that primarily affects infants and children but can also occur in adults. HFMD is highly contagious and spreads through close personal contact and contact with contaminated surfaces or objects. The virus causes sores in the mouth and a rash on the hands and feet. Symptoms include fever, sore throat, feeling sick, irritability, and loss of appetite.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that occurs when bacteria enter the skin through a break or crack, leading to redness, swelling, warmth, and tenderness in the affected area. Cellulitis most commonly affects the legs, but it can occur in other parts of the body. If left untreated, cellulitis can lead to more severe complications. Serious infections can spread deep into the body and can be life-threatening.

Abscess

An abscess is a localized collection of pus that forms within tissues, organs, or spaces in the body from infection, inflammation, or the body’s immune response to foreign substances. Abscesses can occur in various parts of the body and may vary in size from small and barely noticeable to large and painful. Skin abscesses may look red and swollen.

Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis, often referred to as the stomach flu or stomach bug, is characterized by inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It leads to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and nausea. Gastroenteritis can be caused by various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, as well as non-infectious causes like food poisoning or dietary indiscretion.

Enterocolitis

Enterocolitis is inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and the colon (colitis). It is a condition that can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation in either of your intestines is common, but when it occurs in both, it tends to be more severe. Enterocolitis can range from mild to severe and may lead to various symptoms and complications.

Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a potentially severe respiratory infection that affects one or both lungs. It causes the air sacs, or alveoli, of the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus. Pneumonia can be caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as non-infectious factors, such as inhaling irritants or aspirating food or liquids into the lungs.

Walking Pneumonia

Walking pneumonia is milder compared to the more severe and acute pneumonia typically associated with symptoms like high fever and severe chest pain. It is usually caused by atypical bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, or Legionella pneumophila, or sometimes by viruses like adenoviruses or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

Foreign body

A foreign body refers to any object or substance that enters the body from the outside and is not naturally present in that specific area. Foreign bodies can be introduced into various parts of the body, including the eyes, ears, nose, throat, airways, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. When a foreign body becomes lodged or trapped in these areas, it can lead to uncomfortable symptoms and complications, depending on its location.

Covid

COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Most people infected with the virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. However, some will become seriously ill and require medical attention.

Flu

Influenza, or the Flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It attacks the lungs, nose, and throat. Symptoms include fever, chills, muscle aches, cough, congestion, runny nose, headaches, and fatigue. It is a seasonal infection that typically occurs during the fall and winter. The Flu can affect people of all ages and lead to a wide range of symptoms, from mild to severe. Young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with chronic diseases or weak immune systems are at high risk.

Anxiety

Anxiety is a natural and adaptive human response to stress or perceived threats. It is often described as a feeling of unease, worry, or fear, typically accompanied by physical sensations like increased heart rate, muscle tension, and restlessness. While anxiety is a normal part of life and can be helpful in certain situations, it can become problematic when it becomes chronic, excessive, or overwhelming.

Depression

Depression, also known as major depressive disorder (MDD), is a serious mental health condition characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities. It is more than just feeling down or having a “bad day.” Depression can significantly impact a person’s daily life, relationships, and well-being. It causes severe symptoms that affect how a person feels, thinks, and handles daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working.

Encopresis

Encopresis is a childhood disorder characterized by the repeated and voluntary or involuntary passage of feces into inappropriate places, such as clothing or the floor, after the age at which bowel control is typically established. Typically, it happens when impacted stool collects in the colon and rectum; the colon becomes too full, and liquid stool leaks around the retained stool, staining underwear. It is sometimes referred to as fecal incontinence. Encopresis is more common in children and can result from various factors, including constipation and psychological stressors.

Croup

Croup is a common respiratory illness in children, primarily affecting those between the ages of six months and three years, although it can occur in older children as well. It is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the upper airways. This inflammation can lead to a distinctive barking cough, hoarseness, and noisy breathing, often described as a “stridor” sound when inhaling.

Laryngitis

Laryngitis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation of the larynx, which is commonly known as the voice box. This inflammation can result in hoarseness or even the temporary loss of voice. Laryngitis can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, overuse or strain of the vocal cords, and exposure to irritants.

Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by the inflammation of the tonsils, which are two small, gland-like structures located at the back of the throat. Tonsillitis is usually caused by a viral infection but can be from a bacterial infection. It can lead to symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever. Treatment can range from home-care remedies to surgical removal.

Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is a respiratory illness that primarily affects infants and young children. It is characterized by inflammation and swelling of the small airways in the lungs, called bronchioles. The most common cause of bronchiolitis is the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), but other viruses, such as adenoviruses and rhinoviruses, can also lead to this condition.

Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis, commonly known as mono, is a viral illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is most prevalent in adolescents and young adults but can affect people of all ages. Mono is often characterized by symptoms such as fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and extreme fatigue. Mono is transmitted by saliva.

Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks, also known as deer ticks. Lyme disease is prevalent in certain regions of the United States, Europe, and Asia, where these ticks are commonly found.

Lice

Lice, also known as pediculosis, are tiny parasitic insects that infest the hair and scalp of humans and other animals. They feed on blood by biting the skin, causing itching and discomfort. Lice are highly contagious and can spread from person to person through direct head-to-head contact or by sharing personal items like combs, brushes, hats, and bedding.

Diaper rash

Diaper rash is a skin irritation occurring in infants and toddlers who wear diapers. It is characterized by redness, inflammation, and discomfort in the diaper area, including the buttocks, genital area, and folds of the skin. Diaper rash can be caused by a variety of factors, primarily related to prolonged exposure to moisture, friction, and the interaction between urine and feces with the skin.

Thrush

Thrush, also known as oral candidiasis or oropharyngeal candidiasis, is a fungal infection of the mouth and throat caused by an overgrowth of the yeast Candida. Candida is naturally present in the mouth, but various factors can lead to its overgrowth, causing symptoms of thrush. Thrush is most common in infants, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Burn

A burn is an injury to the skin or underlying tissues caused by exposure to heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. Burns can vary in severity from minor to life-threatening, and they are classified into different degrees based on the depth and extent of tissue damage.

Sunburn

Sunburn is a skin condition that occurs when the skin is overexposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources, like tanning beds. UV radiation can damage the DNA in skin cells, leading to inflammation and a visible reaction on the skin’s surface. Sunburn is typically characterized by redness, warmth, pain, and sometimes blistering of the affected skin.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that can infect people of all ages. It is a significant cause of respiratory tract infections, particularly in infants and young children. RSV can lead to a range of respiratory illnesses, from mild cold-like symptoms to more severe conditions such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Infants and older adults are more likely to develop severe RSV and need hospitalization.

Fifth's disease

Fifth disease is a viral illness caused by the human parvovirus B19. It is a relatively common childhood illness that typically results in a distinctive red rash on the face, which is often described as a “slapped cheek” appearance. Fifth disease is usually a mild and self-limiting condition, but it can affect individuals of all ages.

Colic

Colic is a term used to describe excessive, often unexplained crying and fussiness in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant. Colic typically occurs in babies during the first few months of life, starting around the second or third week and peaking around six weeks of age. Colic episodes can be intense, with the baby crying for several hours a day, several days a week, for at least three weeks.

Fussy infant

A fussy infant is a term used to describe a baby who is irritable, difficult to soothe, or exhibits frequent crying or fussiness, often for no apparent reason. It’s important to note that some level of fussiness is considered normal in babies as they adjust to the world outside the womb and go through various developmental stages. However, excessive fussiness or persistent crying can sometimes be a sign of an underlying issue that may need attention.

Acute upper respiratory infection

Acute upper respiratory infection (URI), often referred to as the common cold, is a viral infection that primarily affects the upper respiratory tract. It is a prevalent and highly contagious condition that can occur year-round but is more common during colder months. Acute URIs are typically caused by various viruses, including rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses.

Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, commonly known as hay fever, is a chronic inflammatory condition of the nasal passages caused by an allergic reaction to allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or mold spores. It is a common condition that affects people of all ages and can lead to a range of bothersome symptoms, including runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, throat, or ears, coughing, fatigue, or headaches.

Constipation

Constipation is a digestive condition in which a person has infrequent bowel movements or difficulty passing stool. It can vary in severity from occasional mild discomfort to chronic and severe symptoms. Generally, constipation leads to the passage of small quantities of dry and hard stool, typically occurring less than three times a week. Constipation can be caused by various factors, including diet, lifestyle, medical conditions, and medications.

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which are the air passages that carry air to and from the lungs. This inflammation can lead to various symptoms, including coughing, mucus production, and difficulty breathing. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic, and it can result from both viral and bacterial infections.

Viral infection

A viral infection is an illness caused by the invasion and multiplication of viruses within the body’s cells. Viruses are tiny infectious agents that can only replicate inside living host cells. When a virus infects a host, it uses the host’s cellular machinery to reproduce and spread, often leading to various symptoms and health problems. Viral infections can affect many parts of the body and range from mild to severe.